Newly-born panda cubs are premature infants, incapable of excreting voluntarily. Therefore, early parenting by mother pandas includes licking the anus and perineum to stimulate excretion.
Cubs that are raised by human can normally excrete on their own about 130 days after birth. For this period of approximately 4 months, breeders stabilize the cubs with one hand, or make them lean against stable objects, and stimulate excretion with the other hand.
Excreta amount depends on food consumed and the stage of growth, but it fluctuates a lot in general.
From 70 days since birth onwards, due to the increase in dry substance absorption, the fluctuation is even more significant.
After 73 days, number of excretions can vary from once per day to 4 or 5 times per day.